History of place names[ edit ] See also:
Prehistory to the Roman era[ edit ] Toulon Cathedral 11th to 18th centuries Archaeological excavations, such as those at the Cosquer Cave near Marseilleshow that the coast of Provence was inhabited since at least the Paleolithic era.
The Ligurians settled in the area beginning in the 4th century BC. The Romans defeated the Ligurians and began to start their own colonies along the coast.
A Roman settlement was founded at the present location of Toulon, with the name Telo Martius — Telo, either for the goddess of springs or from the Latin tol, the base of the hill — and Martiusfor the god of war.
Telo Martius became one of the two principal Roman dye manufacturing centres, producing the purple colour used in imperial robes, made from the local sea snail called murexand from the acorns of the oak trees. Toulon harbour became a shelter for trading ships, and the name of the town gradually changed from Telo to Tholon, Tolon, and Toulon.
Arrival of Christianity and the Counts of Provence[ edit ] Toulon was Christianized in the 5th century, and the first cathedral built.
Honoratus and Gratianus of Toulon Gratienaccording to the Gallia Christianawere the first bishops of Toulonbut Louis Duchesne gives Augustalis as the first historical bishop.
He assisted at councils in and and signed in and the letters addressed to Pope Leo I from the province of Arles. A Saint Cypriandisciple and biographer of St.
His episcopate, begun inhad not come to an end in ; he converted to Catholicism two Visigothic chiefs, Mandrier and Flavian, who became anchorites and martyrs on the peninsula of Mandrier. As barbarians invaded the region and Roman power crumbled, the town was frequently attacked by pirates and the Saracens.
Royal Port 15th—18th centuries [ edit ] Main article: Soon afterwards, inCharles VIII of Francewith the intention of making France a sea power on the Mediterranean, and to support his military campaign in Italy, began constructing a military port at the harbor of Toulon.
His Italian campaign failed, andthe rulers of Genoawho controlled commerce on that part of the Mediterranean, blockaded the new port.
However, a few months later the commander of the new fort sold it to the commander of an Army of the Holy Roman Empire, and Toulon surrendered. The residents were forced to leave, and the Ottoman sailors occupied the town for the winter. See Ottoman occupation of Toulon.
This fleet carried aboard an army of 8, infantry and cavalry and its baggage under Thomas of Savoy, shortly before a general in Spanish service. However, inthe city was ravaged by the black plaguecoming from Marseille. Thirteen thousand people, or half the population, died.
The leaders of the city, however, were largely royalists, and they welcomed the arrival of a British fleet. At the siege of Toulonthe British were expelled by a French force whose artillery was led by a young captain, Napoleon Bonaparte. To punish Toulon for its rebellion, the town lost its status as department capital and was briefly renamed Port-de-la-Montagne.
Inthe statue which became known as the Venus de Milo was discovered on the Greek island of Milo and seen by a French naval officer, Emile Voutier. He persuaded the French Ambassador to Turkey to buy it, and brought it to Toulon on his ship, the Estafette.
From Toulon it was taken to the Louvre. In a French fleet with an army departed from Toulon for the conquest of Algeria.
During his year as prefect, he began a major reconstruction of the city, similar to what he would later do in Paris. He tore down large parts of the old fortifications and built new boulevards and squares. The new Toulon Opera House, the second-largest in France, opened in Le site de référence Pour acheter, vendre ou louer de particulier à particulier, c'est chez PAP que ça se passe!
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