In cold fact, the new Russian government was not quite as new as many of its admirers and enemies believed. Tyranny—the oppressive government of brute force—was as old as civilization itself. Because private ownership of goods would corrupt their owners by encouraging selfishness, Plato argued, the guardians must live as a large family that shares common ownership not only of material goods but also of spouses and children.
Committer Squatting Occupation of property that either is unused and unkept or was abandoned, whether the property still has an owner or not. If the property is owned and not abandoned, then the squatting is trespassing, if any usage not beholden to the wishes of the owner is done in the process.
Squatter Reverse engineering Discovery of how a device works, whether it is an instance of intellectual property perhaps patented or not, whether it is in public domain or not, and of how to alter or duplicate it, without access to or knowledge of the corresponding design plan.
Reverse engineer Ghostwriting Creation of a textual work, whereby in publication, another party is explicitly allowed to be credited as creator. Ghostwriter Issues in property theory[ edit ] What can be property? John Locke emphasized effort, "mixing your labor"  with an object, or clearing and cultivating virgin land.
Benjamin Tucker preferred to look at the telos of property, Property outline. What is the purpose of property? Only when items are relatively scarce with respect to people's desires do they become property. Agrarian societies later made arable land property, as it was scarce.
For something to be economically scarce it must necessarily have the exclusivity property—that use by one person excludes others from using it.
These two justifications lead to different conclusions on what can be property. Intellectual property —incorporeal things like ideas, plans, orderings and arrangements musical compositions, novels, computer programs —are generally considered valid property to those who support an effort justification, but invalid to those who support a scarcity justification, since the things don't have the exclusivity property however, those who support a scarcity justification may still support other "intellectual property" laws such as Copyrightas long as these are a subject of contract instead of government arbitration.
Thus even ardent propertarians may disagree about IP. From some anarchist points of view, the validity of property depends on whether the "property right" requires enforcement by the state. Different forms of "property" require different amounts of enforcement: Some anarchists don't believe in property at all.
Many things have existed that did not have an ownersometimes called the commons.
The term "commons," however, is also often used to mean something quite different: Also, the same term is sometimes used by statists to mean government-owned property that the general public is allowed to access public property. Law in all societies has tended to develop towards reducing the number of things not having clear owners.
Supporters of property rights argue that this enables better protection of scarce resources, due to the tragedy of the commonswhile critics argue that it leads to the 'exploitation' of those resources for personal gain and that it hinders taking advantage of potential network effects.
These arguments have differing validity for different types of "property"—things that are not scarce are, for instance, not subject to the tragedy of the commons. Some apparent critics advocate general collective ownership rather than ownerlessness.
Things that do not have owners include: In the United States and Canada wildlife are generally defined in statute as property of the state. The nature of children under the age of majority is another contested issue here. In ancient societies children were generally considered the property of their parents.Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
It also includes other types of rights, such as trade secrets, publicity rights, moral rights, and rights against unfair timberdesignmag.comic works like music and literature, as well as some discoveries, inventions, words.
family code. title 1. the marriage relationship.
subtitle b. property rights and liabilities. chapter 3. marital property rights and liabilities. subchapter a. general rules for separate and community property.
iv. REAL PROPERTY a. Executory Interest Following Defeasible Fee Violates the Rule 33 b Age Contingency Beyond Age Twenty-One in Open Class.
So Your Neighbor Got a Drone for Christmas. Can you stop them from flying it over your house? No one knows, and that is a big problem for the drone industry. The world’s number one source for global intellectual property (patents, industrial designs, copyright, trademarks etc.) information, resources, and services.
1 Your Exam Content Outline The following outline describes the content of one of the Wisconsin insurance examinations. The outlines are the basis of.