Essay on spiritualism

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Essay on spiritualism

Most workers have drawn the direct conclusion that Wallace "changed his Essay on spiritualism about the theory he originally set out--perhaps because of an inability to reconcile "the survival of the fittest" concept with his utopian social views, or in conjunction with his adoption of spiritualist beliefs.

In the present work a different interpretation of the events is presented: His first response was to adopt a unique brand of anti-first causes teleology, but this position later matured into a body of ideas compatible with materialist logic on his recognition of the principle of natural selection and his adoption of spiritualism.

Wallace is interpreted as having rejected the argument of necessary utility of adaptation before The Ternate essay not only signalled his recognition of this mistake, but anticipated his later arguments that the adaptive process was associated with a hierarchical domain of causality.

Wallace had been trying from the beginning to develop an evolutionary model that described a continuity of causality extending beyond the immediate domain within which natural selection is now usually credited as operating. The arguments leading to these conclusions are supported by excerpts from and additional references to his writings, and by emphasizing the fact that Wallace himself wrote nothing providing any real evidence for the "change of mind" theory.

Introduction The life and studies of the nineteenth and early twentieth century naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace have received considerable attention in recent years. The main influences on his life--especially his support of Owenite social ideals, 1 interest in mesmerism and phrenology, 2 travels in tropical lands, 3 connections with Darwin and development of the concept of natural selection, 4 and adoption of spiriitualism 5 --have been treated fairly thoroughly as a matter of historical record, and in their relation to the major sociological and scientific trends of the period.

I believe, however, that Wallace is unlikely to be fully appreciated until he is perceived in other than historical-sociological terms. The debates of his period provided him with a stage for his weighed opinions, of course, but it is important to keep in mind that he was a highly inventive thinker who was not afraid to follow any path he felt was leading to the truth.

Three interrelated analyses comprise the present study. Lastly, the idea that Wallace supposedly underwent a "change of mind" regarding the applicability of natural selection to the evolution of man is refuted by reference to earlier discussion, by showing how certain contentious passages in his writings are more easily accounted for through the interpretation of his work presented here, and by taking note of the significant fact that Wallace himself never wrote anything referring to, or conceding, such a change.

Smith, Kottler, Schwartz, and Malinchak. Whereas it has been customary to consider his thought as primarily biological and his digressions into phrenology, spiritualism, socialism, and ethnology as peripheral, these apparently diverse subjects were in reality aspects of a unified interpretation of the world in terms of humanitarian values.

Kottler, on the other hand, comes to the conclusion that " To summarize, the position now generally held is that Wallace was led to spiritualistic belief as a function of his inability to view human evolution in entirely materialistic terms--in particular, as a function of the limitations of natural selection.

Essay on spiritualism

Thus, spiritualism supposedly provided Wallace with a previously missing religious element in his life--one which also explained away the intellectual and moral development of the human race. It seems to me, however, that these conclusions represent a misreading of the available facts.

Wallace had from the very beginning been pursuing a course of investigation that inherently and, to a degree, unwittingly denied priority to materialistic interpretations of nature, and only through natural selection and spiritualism was he able to forge a synthesis compatible with materialist logic.

Spencer Hall in Sometime earlier, Wallace had read George Combe and become interested in related phrenological subjects. Indeed, the common opinion, even within the scientific and medical communities, was that it was a hoax. Wallace attended the lecture as a nonbeliever; shortly afterward, however, he found himself able to induce the same effects that he had witnessed on stage on subjects of his own choosing, and eventually became a skilled practitioner of the art.

In the more general sense, new discoveries--no matter how unusual--were deserving of detached and rational study, not ignorant, ill-informed disbelief.

More specially, psychical phenomena were not to be branded unworthy of attention a priori.


Their religions, superstitions, and cosmological traditions especially attracted his attention, and in later writings he made frequent use of his observations. That he was a frequent attender is true enough; through this experience he gained a first-hand acquaintance with the range of supposed spiritualistic "contact phenomena" e.

But it is equally true that his investigation extended to more than just observation. Wallace invariably began any new investigative effort with an exhaustive literature review.

It is thus necessary first to emphasize that spiritualism per se is not a religion--at least not in the usual sense of that term. Significantly, the view expressed in spiritualist and other theosophical writings is that the chain of natural causality nonetheless extends continuously, and back and forth, between the psychic i.

The sensational manifestations of this continuity allegedly occurring during seances and analogous conditions are, it has usually been supposed, the only aspects of it whose causes might readily be distinguished from the ordinary "material" phenomena of nature.

The reason for this, I suggest, is that at that time he considered the concept only a partial solution to more general problems he had been working on for about fifteen years.

The remainder of the solution--as a continuation, not reversal, of thought--occurred to him only as he became familiar with the writings of spiritualism.An Essay On Spiritualism [Thomas White] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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Eastern spiritualism essays

Spiritualism is a metaphysical belief that the world is made up of at least two fundamental substances, matter and spirit. This very broad metaphysical distinction is further developed into many and various forms by the inclusion of details about what spiritual entities exist such as a soul.

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Eastern spiritualism essays Par • 24 novembre Non classé. Kahalagahan ng pagbasa essay writing essay on science its uses and misuses chicago essays word limit thomas zerback dissertation the feeling of love essay writing essay on politics and crime are the same. My best friend essay quotes from lord. Jul 04,  · No regrets essay by magic tab life person essay writing ks2 my favorite star essay country japan the read of newspapers essay questions essay about management happiness and sadness, And On three modern essays miracles spiritualism. stars – based on reviews July 4, What Is Spirituality Spirituality is a word that has endless definitions and means something different to everyone. Although no one definition may be the same, they all lead back to one basic idea – faith.

stars – based on reviews July 4, Spirituality at Workplace Essay INTRODUCTION Workplace Spirituality or Spirituality in the Workplace is a movement that began in the early s.

It emerged as a grassroots movement with individuals seeking to live their faith and/or spiritual values in the workplace. - Spiritualism Spiritualism is the system of religious beliefs centered on the presumption that communication with the dead, or spirits, is possible (Grolier '97).

Spiritualism challenged dominant cultural beliefs of the 19th century (Paul) and is still in practice today. Essay on Spirituality and Health - This enquiry based learning essay (EBL) will be based on the concept of spirituality and how it is related to health. The concept is has a variety of meanings and is seen as a unique entity to all individuals.

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